Miklos
« Je donne mon avis non comme bon mais comme mien. » — Michel de Montaigne

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8 novembre 2017

« Bien des gens se mêlent d’enseigner ce qu’ils devraient encore étudier » (Gabriel Girard)

Classé dans : Histoire, Langue, Société — Miklos @ 1:27

Extrait de l’ouvrage Histoire d’un livre de Charles Delon.
Extrait de Histoire d’un livre de Charles Delon.

Cette citation, provenant de l’article « enseigner, apprendre, instruire, informer, faire savoir » du Dictionnaire universel des synonymes de la langue française (que l’on peut retrouver ci-dessous) s’applique quelque peu à Charles Delon (1839-1900), l’auteur de Histoire d’un livre, ouvrage de vulgarisation à l’intention de la jeunesse. Dans le paragraphe qu’il consacre très brièvement à l’hébreu, l’exemple qu’il en donne (cf. image ci-dessus) comprend trois fautes de transcription indiquant sa méconnaissance de l’alphabet hébraïque et sa confusion entre des lettres de formes distinctes même si quelque peu semblables pour toute personne ignorant cette langue : le ו (correspondant à notre v ou u) et le ן (n en fin de mot), le י (correspondant à notre i) et le tiret, le ן (n en fin de mot) et le ך (k ou kh en fin de mot).

Ainsi, au lieu de בן-דוד (fils de David, troisième mot à partir de la droite), il écrit בוידוד (ce qui ne veut rien dire), et au lieu de להבין (comprendre, qu’il traduit par « donner l’intelligence ») on lit להביך (induire en confusion, ce qui n’est non seulement l’opposé, mais ce qu’il réussit à faire ici).

Quelques lignes plus haut, n’écrivait-il pas « Ainsi le nom de Salomon (en hébreu Salomoh)… », ce qui est faux de façon patente : ce nom se prononce en hébreu Chelomo. Cette erreur démontre que l’auteur ignorait la différence entre le שׁ (ch, première lettre du nom hébraïque de Salomon) et le שׂ (s).

À se demander quelles confusions se retrouvent dans les autres langues anciennes dont il parle et pour lesquelles il donne des exemples…

Pour finir, voici l’article dont est tirée la citation en titre.

«Enseigner, c’est uniquement donner des leçons. Apprendre, c’est donner des leçons dont on profite. Instruire, c’est mettre au fait des choses par des mémoires détaillés. Informer, c’est avertir les personnes des événements qui peuvent être de quelque conséquence. Faire savoir, c’est simplement rapporter ou mander fidèlement les choses.

Enseigner et apprendre ont plus de rapport à tout ce qui est propre à cultiver l’esprit et à former une belle éducation; c’est pourquoi l’on s’en sert très à propos lorsqu’il est question des arts et des sciences. Instruire a plus de rapport à ce qui est utile à la conduite de la vie et au succès des affaires ; ainsi il est à sa place lorsqu’il s’agit de quelque chose qui regarde ou notre devoir ou nos intérêts. Informer renferme particulièrement, dans l’étendue de son sens, une idée d’autorité à l’égard des personnes qu’on informe, et une idée de dépendance à l’égard de celles dont les faits sont l’objet de l’information ; c’est par cette raison que ce mot est à merveille lorsqu’il est question des services ou des malversations de gens employés par d’autres, et de la manière dont se comportent les enfants, les domestiques, les sujets, enfin tous ceux qui ont à rendre raison à quelqu’un de leur conduite et de leurs actions. Faire savoir a plus de rapport à ce qui satisfait simplement la curiosité, de sorte qu’il convient mieux en fait de nouvelles.

Le professeur enseigne, dans les écoles publiques, ceux qui viennent entendre ses leçons. L’historien apprend à la postérité les événements de son siècle. Le prince instruit ses ambassadeurs de ce qu’ils ont à négocier : le père instruit aussi ses enfants de la manière dont ils doivent vivre dans le monde. L’intendant informe la cour de ce qui se passe dans la province; comme le surveillant informe les supérieurs de la bonne ou mauvaise conduite de ceux qui leur sont soumis. Les correspondants se font savoir réciproquement tout ce qui arrive de nouveau et de remarquable dans les lieux où ils sont.

Il faut savoir à fond pour être en état d’enseigner. Il faut de la méthode et de la clarté pour apprendre aux autres ; de l’expérience et de l’habileté pour bien instruire, de la prudence et de la sincérité pour informer à propos et au vrai; des soins et de l’exactitude pour faire savoir ce qui mérite de n’être pas ignoré.

Bien des gens se mêlent d’enseigner ce qu’ils devraient encore étudier. Quelques-uns en apprennent aux autres plus qu’ils n’en savent eux-mêmes. Peu sont capables d’instruire. Plusieurs prennent la peine, sans qu’on les en prie, d’informer les gens de tout ce qui peut leur être désagréable. Il y en a d’autres» qui, par leur indiscrétion, font savoir à tout le monde ce qui est à leur propre désavantage. (G.)

Gabriel Girard (1677-1748), Dictionnaire universel des synonymes de la langue française : contenant les synonymes de Girard… et ceux de Beauzée, Roubeaud, d’Alembert, Diderot, etc.. Tome 1. Benoît Morin, éditeur scientifique. 1855.

31 octobre 2017

Something to believe in for everyone || Vous y croyez, vous ?

Classé dans : Langue, Littérature, Philosophie, Politique, Religion, Société — Miklos @ 16:38

Some words ending in –ism.
Some words ending in –ism (fuller list below).
Click to enlarge.

The liberal is your true undying friend
But disagree with him and that’s the end.

The radical, however, claims no friend
Except his catechism, which can bend.

In the revolution there are always cracks:
The Communists killed Trotsky with an ax.

The guns of the Idealists are red-hot:
Whoso commits nonviolence is shot.

Karl Jay Shapiro (1913-2000), ISMs.

Ableism ⋅ Abolitionism ⋅ Absenteeism ⋅ Absolutism ⋅ Abstractionism ⋅ Absurdism ⋅ Academicism ⋅ Academism ⋅ Achromatism ⋅ Acrotism ⋅ Actinism ⋅ Activism ⋅ Adonism ⋅ Adoptianism ⋅ Adoptionism ⋅ Adventism ⋅ Adventurism ⋅ Aeroembolism ⋅ Aestheticism ⋅ Ageism ⋅ Agism ⋅ Agnosticism ⋅ Agrarianism ⋅ Alarmism ⋅ Albinism ⋅ Alcoholism ⋅ Aldosteronism ⋅ Alevism ⋅ Algorism ⋅ Alienism ⋅ Allelism ⋅ Allelomorphism ⋅ Allomorphism ⋅ Alpinism ⋅ Altruism ⋅ Amateurism ⋅ Amoralism ⋅ Amorphism ⋅ Amyraldism ⋅ Anabaptism ⋅ Anabolism ⋅ Anachronism ⋅ Analogism ⋅ Analphabetism ⋅ Anarchism ⋅ Anecdotalism ⋅ Aneurism ⋅ aneurysm ⋅ Anglicanism ⋅ Anglicism ⋅ Animalism ⋅ Animatism ⋅ Animism ⋅ Anisotropism ⋅ Antagonism ⋅ Anthropocentrism ⋅ Anthropomorphism ⋅ Anthropopathism ⋅ Antialcoholism ⋅ Antiauthoritarianism ⋅ Antiblackism ⋅ Anticapitalism ⋅ Anticlericalism ⋅ Anticolonialism ⋅ Anticommercialism ⋅ Anticommunism ⋅ Antielitism ⋅ Antievolutionism ⋅ Antifascism ⋅ Antifeminism ⋅ Antiferromagnetism ⋅ Antihumanism ⋅ Antiliberalism ⋅ Antimaterialism ⋅ Antimilitarism ⋅ Antinepotism ⋅ Antinomianism ⋅ Antiquarianism ⋅ Antiracism ⋅ Antiradicalism ⋅ Antirationalism ⋅ Antirealism ⋅ Antireductionism ⋅ Antiritualism ⋅ Antiromanticism ⋅ Antiterrorism ⋅ Aphorism ⋅ Apocalypticism ⋅ Apocalyptism ⋅ Arabism ⋅ Archaism ⋅ Arianism ⋅ Armirianism ⋅ Asceticism ⋅ Assimilationism ⋅ Associationism ⋅ Asterism ⋅ Astigmatism ⋅ Asynchronism ⋅ Atavism ⋅ Atenism ⋅ Atheism ⋅ Athleticism ⋅ Atomism ⋅ Atonalism ⋅ Atropism ⋅ Atticism ⋅ Autecism ⋅ Auteurism ⋅ Authoritarianism ⋅ Autism ⋅ Autoecism ⋅ Autoeroticism ⋅ Autoerotism ⋅ Automatism ⋅ Automorphism ⋅ Baalism ⋅ Bábism ⋅ Bahaism ⋅ Baptism ⋅ Barbarianism ⋅ Barbarism ⋅ Bathouism ⋅ Behaviorism ⋅ Behmenism ⋅ Benthamism ⋅ Benzhuism ⋅ Biblicism ⋅ Bibliophilism ⋅ Bicameralism ⋅ Biculturalism ⋅ Bidialectalism ⋅ Bilateralism ⋅ Bilingualism ⋅ Bimetallism ⋅ Bimoism ⋅ Binarism ⋅ Biologism ⋅ Bioregionalism ⋅ Bipartisanism ⋅ Bipedalism ⋅ Biracialism ⋅ Blackguardism ⋅ Bogomilism ⋅ Bogyism ⋅ Bohemianism ⋅ Bolshevism ⋅ Boosterism ⋅ Bossism ⋅ Botulism ⋅ Bourbonism ⋅ Boyarism ⋅ Brahmanism ⋅ Briticism ⋅ Brominism ⋅ Bromism ⋅ Brutism ⋅ Bruxism ⋅ Buddhism ⋅ Bureaucratism ⋅ Cabalism ⋅ Cabbalism ⋅ Caciquism ⋅ Caesarism ⋅ Calvinism ⋅ Cambism ⋅ can-do-ism ⋅ Cannibalism ⋅ Capitalism ⋅ Careerism ⋅ Casteism ⋅ Castroism ⋅ Catabolism ⋅ cataclysm ⋅ Catastrophism ⋅ Catechism ⋅ Catharism ⋅ Catholicism ⋅ Cavalierism ⋅ Centralism ⋅ Centrism ⋅ Ceremonialism ⋅ Charism ⋅ Charlatanism ⋅ Chauvinism ⋅ Chemism ⋅ Chemotropism ⋅ Cheondoism ⋅ Chimaerism ⋅ Chimerism ⋅ Chrism ⋅ Chromaticism ⋅ Cicisbeism ⋅ Cinchonism ⋅ Civicism ⋅ Civism ⋅ Cladism ⋅ Classicism ⋅ Classism ⋅ Clericalism ⋅ Clonism ⋅ Cocainism ⋅ Cockneyism ⋅ Collaborationism ⋅ Collectivism ⋅ Colloquialism ⋅ Colonialism ⋅ Colorism ⋅ Commensalism ⋅ Commercialism ⋅ Communalism ⋅ Communism ⋅ Communitarianism ⋅ Conceptualism ⋅ Concretism ⋅ Confessionalism ⋅ Conformism ⋅ Confucianism ⋅ Congregationalism ⋅ Connubialism ⋅ Conservatism ⋅ Constitutionalism ⋅ Constructionism ⋅ Constructivism ⋅ Consumerism ⋅ Controversialism ⋅ Conventionalism ⋅ Corporatism ⋅ Corporativism ⋅ Cosmism ⋅ Cosmopolitanism ⋅ Cosmopolitism ⋅ Countercriticism ⋅ Counterculturalism ⋅ Counterterrorism ⋅ Creationism ⋅ Credentialism ⋅ Cretinism ⋅ Criticism ⋅ Cronyism ⋅ Cryptorchidism ⋅ Cryptorchism ⋅ Cubism ⋅ Cultism ⋅ Cynicism ⋅ Czarism ⋅ Dadaism ⋅ Daejongism ⋅ Daltonism ⋅ Dandyism ⋅ Darwinism ⋅ de Gaullism ⋅ Defeatism ⋅ Deism ⋅ Demonism ⋅ Denominationalism ⋅ Despotism ⋅ Determinism ⋅ Deviationism ⋅ Diabolism ⋅ Diamagnetism ⋅ Diastereoisomerism ⋅ Diastrophism ⋅ Dichroism ⋅ Dichromatism ⋅ Diclinism ⋅ Dicrotism ⋅ Didacticism ⋅ die-hardism ⋅ Diffusionism ⋅ Dilettantism ⋅ Dimerism ⋅ Dimorphism ⋅ Dinkoism ⋅ Dioecism ⋅ Discordianism ⋅ Ditheism ⋅ Divisionism ⋅ Docetism ⋅ Doctrinairism ⋅ Dodoism ⋅ Dogmatism ⋅ do-goodism ⋅ Don Juanism ⋅ Donatism ⋅ Druidism ⋅ Dualism ⋅ Dudeism ⋅ Dwarfism ⋅ Dynamism ⋅ Dysphemism ⋅ Ecclesiasticism ⋅ Echoism ⋅ Eclecticism ⋅ Ecofeminism ⋅ Ecoterrorism ⋅ Ecotourism ⋅ Ecumenicalism ⋅ Ecumenicism ⋅ Ecumenism ⋅ Egalitarianism ⋅ Egocentrism ⋅ Egoism ⋅ Egotism ⋅ Electromagnetism ⋅ Elitism ⋅ Embolism ⋅ Emotionalism ⋅ Empiricism ⋅ Enantiomorphism ⋅ Encyclopedism ⋅ Endemism ⋅ Endomorphism ⋅ Endoparasitism ⋅ Entrepreneurialism ⋅ Environmentalism ⋅ Eonism ⋅ Epicenism ⋅ Epicureanism ⋅ Epicurism ⋅ Epigonism ⋅ Epigrammatism ⋅ Epiphenomenalism ⋅ Epiphytism ⋅ Epizoism ⋅ Equalitarianism ⋅ Eremitism ⋅ Erethism ⋅ Ergotism ⋅ Eroticism ⋅ Erotism ⋅ Erraticism ⋅ Erythrism ⋅ Escapism ⋅ Esotericism ⋅ Essenism ⋅ Essentialism ⋅ Establishmentarianism ⋅ Estheticism ⋅ Etatism ⋅ Ethnocentrism ⋅ Eudaemonism ⋅ Eudaimonism ⋅ Euhemerism ⋅ Eunuchism ⋅ Euphemism ⋅ Euphuism ⋅ Evangelicalism ⋅ Evangelism ⋅ Evolutionism ⋅ Exceptionalism ⋅ Exclusivism ⋅ Exhibitionism ⋅ Existentialism ⋅ Exogenism ⋅ Exorcism ⋅ Exoticism ⋅ Exotism ⋅ Expansionism ⋅ Expatriatism ⋅ Experimentalism ⋅ Expertism ⋅ Expressionism ⋅ Externalism ⋅ Extremism ⋅ Factionalism ⋅ Factualism ⋅ Faddism ⋅ Fairyism ⋅ Faism ⋅ Familism ⋅ Fanaticism ⋅ Faradism ⋅ Fascism ⋅ Fatalism ⋅ Fauvism ⋅ Favism ⋅ Favoritism ⋅ Federalism ⋅ Feminism ⋅ Ferrimagnetism ⋅ Ferromagnetism ⋅ Fetichism ⋅ Fetishism ⋅ Feudalism ⋅ Feuilletonism ⋅ Fideism ⋅ Finalism ⋅ Flagellantism ⋅ Flunkyism ⋅ Fogeyism ⋅ Fogyism ⋅ Foreignism ⋅ Formalism ⋅ Formulism ⋅ Frankism ⋅ Fraternalism ⋅ Freneticism ⋅ Funambulism ⋅ Functionalism ⋅ Fundamentalism ⋅ Fusionism ⋅ Futilitarianism ⋅ Futurism ⋅ Gallicism ⋅ Galvanism ⋅ Gangsterism ⋅ Genteelism ⋅ Geomagnetism ⋅ Geotropism ⋅ Germanism ⋅ Giantism ⋅ Gigantism ⋅ Globalism ⋅ Gnosticism ⋅ Gongorism ⋅ Gothicism ⋅ Gourmandism ⋅ Governmentalism ⋅ Gradualism ⋅ Grangerism ⋅ Greenbackism ⋅ Gutturalism ⋅ Gynandromorphism ⋅ Gypsyism ⋅ Hasidism ⋅ Heathenism ⋅ Hebraism ⋅ Hedonism ⋅ Heightism ⋅ Heliotropism ⋅ Hellenism ⋅ Helotism ⋅ Hemimorphism ⋅ Henotheism ⋅ Herbalism ⋅ Hermaphroditism ⋅ Hermeticism ⋅ Hermetism ⋅ Hermitism ⋅ Heroinism ⋅ Heroism ⋅ Hetaerism ⋅ Hetairism ⋅ Heteroecism ⋅ Heteromorphism ⋅ Heterothallism ⋅ Highbrowism ⋅ Hinduism ⋅ Hipsterism ⋅ Hirsutism ⋅ Hispanism ⋅ Historicism ⋅ Hitlerism ⋅ Hoboism ⋅ Holism ⋅ Holometabolism ⋅ Homeomorphism ⋅ Homoeroticism ⋅ Homomorphism ⋅ Homothallism ⋅ Hoodlumism ⋅ Hoodooism ⋅ Hooliganism ⋅ Hucksterism ⋅ Humanism ⋅ Humanitarianism ⋅ Hussitism ⋅ Hybridism ⋅ Hydrotropism ⋅ Hylozoism ⋅ Hypercatabolism ⋅ Hypercriticism ⋅ Hyperinsulinism ⋅ Hypermetabolism ⋅ Hyperparasitism ⋅ Hyperparathyroidism ⋅ Hyperpituitarism ⋅ Hyperrealism ⋅ Hyperthyroidism ⋅ Hyperurbanism ⋅ Hypnotism ⋅ Hypocorism ⋅ Hypoparathyroidism ⋅ Hypopituitarism ⋅ Hypothyroidism ⋅ Ibsenism ⋅ Idealism ⋅ Idiotism ⋅ Idolism ⋅ Illiberalism ⋅ Illuminism ⋅ Illusionism ⋅ Imagism ⋅ Immanentism ⋅ Immaterialism ⋅ Immobilism ⋅ Immoralism ⋅ Imperialism ⋅ Impressionism ⋅ Incendiarism ⋅ Incrementalism ⋅ Indeterminism ⋅ Indifferentism ⋅ Individualism ⋅ Industrialism ⋅ Infantilism ⋅ Inflationism ⋅ Initialism ⋅ Institutionalism ⋅ Instrumentalism ⋅ Insularism ⋅ Intellectualism ⋅ Internationalism ⋅ Interventionism ⋅ Introspectionism ⋅ Intuitionism ⋅ Invalidism ⋅ Iodism ⋅ Iotacism ⋅ Irishism ⋅ Irrationalism ⋅ Irredentism ⋅ Islamism ⋅ Ism ⋅ Isma’ilism ⋅ Isobarism ⋅ Isochronism ⋅ Isolationism ⋅ Isomerism ⋅ Isomorphism ⋅ Jainism ⋅ Jansenism ⋅ Jediism ⋅ Jesuism ⋅ Jesuitism ⋅ jim crowism ⋅ Jingoism ⋅ Jism ⋅ John Bullism ⋅ Journalism ⋅ Judaism ⋅ Jujuism ⋅ Junkerism ⋅ Kabalism ⋅ Kabbalism ⋅ Kaiserism ⋅ Kemetism ⋅ Kopimism ⋅ Krishnaism ⋅ Ku Kluxism ⋅ labsurdism ⋅ Laconism ⋅ Laicism ⋅ Lamaism ⋅ Lamarckism ⋅ Landlordism ⋅ Landmarkism ⋅ Lathyrism ⋅ Latinism ⋅ Latitudinarianism ⋅ Leftism ⋅ Legalism ⋅ Legitimism ⋅ Leninism ⋅ Lesbianism ⋅ Liberalism ⋅ Libertarianism ⋅ Libertinism ⋅ Lingayatism ⋅ Literalism ⋅ Liturgism ⋅ Lobbyism ⋅ Localism ⋅ Locoism ⋅ Lollardism ⋅ Lookism ⋅ Looksism ⋅ Loyalism ⋅ Luciferianism ⋅ Luminism ⋅ Lutheranism ⋅ Lyricism ⋅ Lyrism ⋅ Machoism ⋅ Maenadism ⋅ Magnetism ⋅ Majoritarianism ⋅ Malapropism ⋅ Mammonism ⋅ Mandaeism ⋅ Mandarinism ⋅ Manichaeism ⋅ Mannerism ⋅ Manorialism ⋅ Marcionism ⋅ Martinism ⋅ Marxism ⋅ Masochism ⋅ Materialism ⋅ Maternalism ⋅ Mazdakism ⋅ Mechanism ⋅ Medievalism ⋅ Melanism ⋅ Meliorism ⋅ Mendelism ⋅ Menshevism ⋅ Mentalism ⋅ Mercantilism ⋅ Mesmerism ⋅ Messianism ⋅ Metabolism ⋅ Metamerism ⋅ Metamorphism ⋅ Metasomatism ⋅ Methodism ⋅ me-tooism ⋅ Metricism ⋅ Microorganism ⋅ Microprism ⋅ Microseism ⋅ Militarism ⋅ Millenarianism ⋅ Millennialism ⋅ Millerism ⋅ Minimalism ⋅ Misoneism ⋅ Mithraism ⋅ Mobbism ⋅ Modernism ⋅ Mohism ⋅ Mohockism ⋅ Momism ⋅ Monachism ⋅ Monadism ⋅ Monarchism ⋅ Monasticism ⋅ Monetarism ⋅ Mongolism ⋅ Monism ⋅ Monochromatism ⋅ Monoecism ⋅ Monometallism ⋅ Monomorphism ⋅ Monorchidism ⋅ Monotheism ⋅ Montanism ⋅ Moralism ⋅ Mormonism ⋅ Moronism ⋅ Morphinism ⋅ Mosaicism ⋅ Mullahism ⋅ Multiculturalism ⋅ Multilateralism ⋅ Multilingualism ⋅ Multiracialism ⋅ Mumboism ⋅ Muqallidism ⋅ Mutism ⋅ Mutualism ⋅ Muwahhidism ⋅ Mysticism ⋅ Nabobism ⋅ Nanism ⋅ Narcism ⋅ Narcissism ⋅ Narcotism ⋅ Nasalism ⋅ Nationalism ⋅ Nativism ⋅ Naturalism ⋅ Naturism ⋅ Nazism ⋅ Necessitarianism ⋅ Necrophilism ⋅ Negativism ⋅ Neoclassicism ⋅ Neocolonialism ⋅ Neoconservatism ⋅ Neo-Druidism ⋅ Neoliberalism ⋅ Neologism ⋅ Neopaganism ⋅ Neoplasticism ⋅ Neoplatonism ⋅ Neopythagoreanism ⋅ Neorealism ⋅ Neoshamanism ⋅ Nephrism ⋅ Nepotism ⋅ Neuroticism ⋅ Neutralism ⋅ Nihilism ⋅ NIMBYism ⋅ Noahidism ⋅ Nomadism ⋅ Nominalism ⋅ Nomism ⋅ Nonconformism ⋅ Nondenominationalism ⋅ Nonobjectivism ⋅ Nonrepresentationalism ⋅ Nontrinitarianism ⋅ Nudism ⋅ Obeahism ⋅ Obelism ⋅ Obiism ⋅ Objectivism ⋅ Obscurantism ⋅ Obstructionism ⋅ Occultism ⋅ Odinism ⋅ Officialism ⋅ Ogreism ⋅ Ogrism ⋅ Onanism ⋅ Operationalism ⋅ Operationism ⋅ Opiumism ⋅ Opportunism ⋅ Optimism ⋅ Oralism ⋅ Orangeism ⋅ Organicism ⋅ Organism ⋅ Orientalism ⋅ Orphism ⋅ Ostracism ⋅ Overoptimism ⋅ Pacificism ⋅ Pacifism ⋅ Padronism ⋅ Paeanism ⋅ Paedomorphism ⋅ Paganism ⋅ Paleomagnetism ⋅ Paludism ⋅ Pan-Slavism ⋅ Pantheism ⋅ Papism ⋅ Parajournalism ⋅ Parallelism ⋅ Paralogism ⋅ Paramagnetism ⋅ Parasitism ⋅ Parecism ⋅ Parkinsonism ⋅ Parochialism ⋅ Parsiism ⋅ Particularism ⋅ Passivism ⋅ Pastoralism ⋅ Paternalism ⋅ Patriotism ⋅ Pauperism ⋅ Pedestrianism ⋅ Pentecostalism ⋅ Peonism ⋅ Perfectionism ⋅ Personalism ⋅ Pessimism ⋅ Phallicism ⋅ Phallism ⋅ Pharisaism ⋅ Phenomenalism ⋅ Philhellenism ⋅ Philistinism ⋅ Photochromism ⋅ Photojournalism ⋅ Photoperiodism ⋅ Phototropism ⋅ Physicalism ⋅ Pianism ⋅ Pictorialism ⋅ Pietism ⋅ Plagiarism ⋅ Platonism ⋅ Plebeianism ⋅ Pleinairism ⋅ Plenism ⋅ Pleochroism ⋅ Pleomorphism ⋅ Plumbism ⋅ Pluralism ⋅ Plutonism ⋅ Pococurantism ⋅ Poeticism ⋅ Pointillism ⋅ Polycentrism ⋅ Polyglotism ⋅ Polyglottism ⋅ Polymerism ⋅ Polymorphism ⋅ Polytheism ⋅ Populism ⋅ Porism ⋅ Positivism ⋅ Postmillenarianism ⋅ Postmillennialism ⋅ Postmodernism ⋅ Pragmaticism ⋅ Pragmatism ⋅ Predatism ⋅ Predestinarianism ⋅ Prelatism ⋅ Premillenarianism ⋅ Premillennialism ⋅ Presentism ⋅ Priapism ⋅ Priggism ⋅ Primitivism ⋅ Prism ⋅ Privatism ⋅ Probabilism ⋅ Professionalism ⋅ Prognathism ⋅ Progressivism ⋅ Prosaism ⋅ Proselytism ⋅ Prostatism ⋅ Protectionism ⋅ Protestantism ⋅ Provincialism ⋅ Prussianism ⋅ Pseudoclassicism ⋅ Pseudomorphism ⋅ Psychologism ⋅ Ptyalism ⋅ Puerilism ⋅ Pugilism ⋅ Purism ⋅ Puritanism ⋅ Puseyism ⋅ Pygmyism ⋅ Pyrrhonism ⋅ Pythagoreanism ⋅ Quackism ⋅ Quakerism ⋅ Quietism ⋅ Quislingism ⋅ Quixotism ⋅ Quranism ⋅ Rabbinism ⋅ Racemism ⋅ Racialism ⋅ Racism ⋅ Radicalism ⋅ Raelism ⋅ Rationalism ⋅ Reactionaryism ⋅ Realism ⋅ Rebaptism ⋅ Recidivism ⋅ Reconstructionism ⋅ Reductionism ⋅ Reformism ⋅ Refugeeism ⋅ Regionalism ⋅ Relativism ⋅ Representationalism ⋅ Republicanism ⋅ Restorationism ⋅ Restrictionism ⋅ Revanchism ⋅ Revisionism ⋅ Revivalism ⋅ Rheumatism ⋅ Rhotacism ⋅ Rightism ⋅ Rigorism ⋅ Ritualism ⋅ Robotism ⋅ Romanism ⋅ Romanticism ⋅ Rosicrucianism ⋅ Rousseauism ⋅ Routinism ⋅ Rowdyism ⋅ Royalism ⋅ Ruffianism ⋅ Ruralism ⋅ Sacerdotalism ⋅ Sacramentalism ⋅ Sadism ⋅ Sadomasochism ⋅ Salvationism ⋅ Samaritanism ⋅ Sansculottism ⋅ Sapphism ⋅ Sardonicism ⋅ Satanism ⋅ Saturnism ⋅ Savagism ⋅ Scapegoatism ⋅ Scepticism ⋅ Schematism ⋅ Schism ⋅ Scholasticism ⋅ Scientism ⋅ Sciolism ⋅ Scotticism ⋅ Secessionism ⋅ Sectarianism ⋅ Sectionalism ⋅ Secularism ⋅ Sedevacantism ⋅ Seism ⋅ Seismism ⋅ Semicolonialism ⋅ Semitism ⋅ Sensationalism ⋅ Sensualism ⋅ Sentimentalism ⋅ Separatism ⋅ Serialism ⋅ Servomechanism ⋅ Sethianism ⋅ Sexism ⋅ Shabakism ⋅ Shaivism ⋅ Shakerism ⋅ Shaktism ⋅ Shamanism ⋅ Shaykhism ⋅ Shintoism ⋅ Sikhism ⋅ Simplism ⋅ Sinapism ⋅ Skepticism ⋅ Slumism ⋅ Snobbism ⋅ Socialism ⋅ Solarism ⋅ Solecism ⋅ Solidarism ⋅ Solipsism ⋅ Somnambulism ⋅ Sophism ⋅ Southernism ⋅ Sovietism ⋅ Spartanism ⋅ Specialism ⋅ Speciesism ⋅ Spinozism ⋅ Spiritism ⋅ Spiritualism ⋅ Spoonerism ⋅ Stalinism ⋅ Standpattism ⋅ Statism ⋅ Stereoisomerism ⋅ Stoicism ⋅ Structuralism ⋅ Stylitism ⋅ Subjectivism ⋅ Sufism ⋅ Supernaturalism ⋅ Superorganism ⋅ Superparasitism ⋅ Superpatriotism ⋅ Superrealism ⋅ Superromanticism ⋅ Supranationalism ⋅ Suprematism ⋅ Surrealism ⋅ Survivalism ⋅ Suwunism ⋅ Swarajism ⋅ Swedenborgianism ⋅ Sybaritism ⋅ Sycophantism ⋅ Syllabism ⋅ Syllogism ⋅ Symbolism ⋅ Symmetallism ⋅ Synchronism ⋅ Syncretism ⋅ Syndactylism ⋅ Syndicalism ⋅ Synergism ⋅ Syntheism ⋅ Systematism ⋅ Tachism ⋅ Talmudism ⋅ Tantrism ⋅ Taoism ⋅ Tarantism ⋅ Tautomerism ⋅ Technopaganism ⋅ Tectonism ⋅ Teetotalism ⋅ Televangelism ⋅ Tenebrism ⋅ Tengrism ⋅ Teratism ⋅ Territorialism ⋅ Terrorism ⋅ Teutonism ⋅ Theatricalism ⋅ Theism ⋅ Theocentrism ⋅ Thermoperiodism ⋅ Thermotropism ⋅ Thigmotropism ⋅ Thromboembolism ⋅ Titanism ⋅ Titoism ⋅ Toadyism ⋅ Tokenism ⋅ Toryism ⋅ Totalism ⋅ Totalitarianism ⋅ Totemism ⋅ Tourism ⋅ Traditionalism ⋅ Transcendentalism ⋅ Transnationalism ⋅ Transsexualism ⋅ Transvestism ⋅ Traumatism ⋅ Triadism ⋅ Tribadism ⋅ Tribalism ⋅ Trichromatism ⋅ Triliteralism ⋅ Trimerism ⋅ Tritheism ⋅ Triumphalism ⋅ Troilism ⋅ Tropism ⋅ Trotskyism  ⋅ Truism ⋅ Tsarism ⋅ Tzarism ⋅ Ultraconservatism ⋅ Ultraism ⋅ Ultraleftism ⋅ Ultraliberalism ⋅ Ultramontanism ⋅ Ultranationalism ⋅ Ultrarealism ⋅ Uniformitarianism ⋅ Unionism ⋅ Unitarianism ⋅ Universalism ⋅ Uranism ⋅ Urbanism ⋅ Ureotelism ⋅ Uricotelism ⋅ Utilitarianism ⋅ Utopianism ⋅ Utopism ⋅ Vagabondism ⋅ Vaishnavism ⋅ Valentinianism ⋅ Valetudinarianism ⋅ Vampirism ⋅ Vandalism ⋅ Vanguardism ⋅ Vedantism ⋅ Veganism ⋅ Vegetarianism ⋅ Ventriloquism ⋅ Verbalism ⋅ Verism ⋅ Vernacularism ⋅ Vigilantism ⋅ Virilism ⋅ Vitalism ⋅ Vocalism ⋅ Vocationalism ⋅ Volcanism ⋅ Voltaism ⋅ Voluntarism ⋅ Voluntaryism ⋅ Volunteerism ⋅ Voodooism ⋅ Vorticism ⋅ Voyeurism ⋅ Vulcanism ⋅ Vulgarism ⋅ Wahhabism ⋅ Warlordism ⋅ Welfarism ⋅ Wellerism ⋅ Wesleyanism ⋅ Wholism ⋅ Witticism ⋅ Womanism ⋅ Workaholism ⋅ Wotanism ⋅ Xerophytism ⋅ Yahooism ⋅ Yankeeism ⋅ Yarsanism ⋅ Yazdânism ⋅ Yiddishism ⋅ Zalmoxianism ⋅ Zionism ⋅ Zombiism ⋅ Zoroastrianism ⋅ Zurvanism ⋅ Zwinglianism

16 juillet 2017

« Elle (la sagesse) sait mêler les jeux et les ris avec les occupations graves et sérieuses. »—Fénelon, Télémaque, livre VIII.

Classé dans : Langue, Littérature — Miklos @ 9:38

Gratification

«Il y a des seigneurs et des magistrats à qui vous ne pouvez parler sans avoir essuyé les caprices du portier, d’un premier laquais qui est à l’entrée de l’appartement, et d’un valet-de-chambre qui est de garde à la porte du cabinet. Tous ces petits messieurs vous repoussent avec une fierté insolente ; sourds à vos compliments, ils ne prêtent l’oreille qu’au son des espèces.

Le comédie Mézetin, voulant présenter un ouvrage de sa composition au duc de ***, fut d’abord rebuté par le portier. « Monsieur, lui dit-il fort honnêtement, je dois être récompensé d’un ouvrage que je dédie à monsieur votre maître : laissez-moi entrer ; je vous promets, foi d’homme d’honneur, le tiers de ce qu’il me donnera. » Le portier, humanisé, lui dit : « Passez, monsieur : je vous crois homme de parole. » À l’entrée de l’appartement, il eut un nouvel assaut avec le laquais ; mais il le gagna par la même voie, en lui promettant un autre tiers de la récompense. Parvenu à la porte du cabinet, il est aux prises avec le valet-de-chambre, et ce n’est que par la promesse du dernier tiers qu’il parvient à l’attendrir.

Le voilà enfin dans ce cabinet si difficile à atteindre ; il fait son compliment et son présent au duc, qui lui dit : « Mézetin, je ressens vivement l’hommage que vous me faites : j’estime infiniment l’ouvrage et l’auteur. Je veux que vous me demandiez vous-même la récompense que vous souhaitez : je vous déclare que je ne la limite point.—Hé bien, monseigneur, répondit l’auteur, je vous demande cent cinquante coups de bâton.—Quel est donc le but de cette plaisanterie ? » reprit le duc. Mézetin lui raconta à quel prix il avait attendri son portier, son laquais, son valet-de-chambre. « Vous voyez bien, poursuivit-il, monseigneur, que, n’ayant aucune part à la récompense, je n’aurai que le plaisir de voir châtier ceux qui m’ont contraint de me relâcher de ma prétention. » Le duc, ayant ri de tout son cœur, fit la mercuriale à ses gens,» et donna un présent à la femme de ce comédien, afin qu’il en pût profiter sans violer sa parole.

A. Roy, Le Narrateur français ; or, a selection of anecdotes, repartees, & characters, in the French tongue, printed with two new orthoepic signs, in order to facilitate the attainment of a correct and elegant pronunciation ; To which are annexed, Premiminary Grammar Principles, an Interpretative Index, and a Free Translation of the first Anecdotes,—by which means, the Text can be critically understood without any other assistance: The whole being executed on an Original Plan, and adapted to the use of Adults. London, 1827.

11 juin 2017

Devinette d’actualité

Classé dans : Actualité, Humour, Langue, Politique — Miklos @ 14:19

Veaux (source)

– Question : de quoi abreuve-t-on les jeunes bovins aujourd’hui ?

– Réponse
On leur donne à boire du thé.
Parce que, comme on le proclame partout en France à haute voix en ce jour, « À veau – thé ! ».

28 mai 2017

Culture et communication à la Mairie de Paris

Classé dans : Actualité, Arts et beaux-arts, Langue, Progrès, Sciences, techniques — Miklos @ 17:41

Madame Hidalgo
Maire de Paris
Mairie de Paris
 
Paris, le 27 mai 2017.

Madame la Maire,

En passant en fin de matinée le vendredi 26 mai devant la mairie du premier arrondissement, j’ai contemplé l’accrochage de Miroslav Sekulic-Struja sur ses grilles. La pancarte qui parle de l’œuvre et de l’artiste y parle d’un ouvrage, « Renée Magritte Vu par... » (pancarte que j’ai prise en photo). Or comme vous devez le savoir, il s’agit de René Magritte.


Cliquer pour agrandir.

J’ai voulu le signaler aussitôt. Le gardien à l’entrée de la mairie m’a dit qu’il n’y avait personne pour ce faire…

J’ai alors voulu le signaler sur le site de la dite mairie : à la fin de la saisie, le site me répond invariablement que « Les caractères : <, >, #, « , & sont interdits dans les champs de saisie !  » Or mon message ne comportait aucun de ces caractères (j’avais même supprimé les guillemets partout).

En désespoir de cause, je me suis rendu sur le site de la Mairie de Paris, pour vous déposer le message ci-dessus dans le formulaire de contact qui s’y trouve. Et voilà que je reçois cet « accusé de réception » n° Ref417095 par courriel :


Cliquer pour agrandir.

et pourtant c’était ce que je venais de faire !

Je trouve cette conjonction de problèmes – culturel et commu­ni­ca­tionnels – bien désolante. À toutes fins utiles, je précise qu’étant infor­ma­ticien je sais en général me servir des outils de commu­ni­cation disponibles sur l’internet (quand ils fonctionnent correctement).

Veuillez accepter, Madame la Maire, l’expression de mes salutations distinguées.

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